Disaster Survival in an Urban Environment.
This was sent to me by KE4SKY, who graciously shared the information for use by us all
It is dated but still in use on the east coast. If anything, look at the holes you might find in it .
Downloads will provide good information for all
4/12/15 all links work
We have been conducting this type of training in the Washington, DC area.
The .ppt presentation may be downloaded at following link:
The .ppt program is a bit over 3 MB and has embedded speaker notes for many of the pages.
There are many links embedded within the presentation which provide ample handouts, etc.
A student’s outline, taken from the .ppt slides:
Why teach “survival” in the city?
Catastrophes vs. disasters
This is about your SURVIVAL, not volunteering
Priorities for human survival
Equipment and supplies
Social implications of disasters
Personal security concerns
Disaster V. Catastrophe
Disasters are short term
“Make do for 3-4 days until help arrives…”
Catastrophic events are long term
Katrina-scale hurricane, tsunami, earthquake
Major terror attack, nuclear detonation, dirty bomb
No help is coming soon, “you are on your own”
Complete loss of civil infrastructure
Minimal or no police, fire or EMS response
No electricity, municipal water, communications
Transport of fuel / food is severely impaired
Public safety agencies will be overwhelmed
Recovery is long term (over 30 days)
What the military survival schools teach:
Seven Priorities For Survival
“Hope for the best, but prepare for the worst”
Positive mental attitude
First Aid / Sanitation-
Water- Storage is great but filters will allow long term –
Food- Daytrex bars are the most compact calories available- HERE
Situational awareness, basic knowledge and
a “survivor’s mindset” enable you to cope effectively
STOP Calm down, and size up your situation…
THINK Anticipate which hazards are most likely
Take stock of materials and resources around you
OBSERVE Orient yourself to your surroundings
PLAN Select equipment and supplies appropriately
ACT! Execute your plan, evaluate progress, adjust, “party on.”
Have an evacuation kit ready at all times
Don’t presume that a disaster will be short-term
Pack essentials first, then consider comfort items
In real emergencies, forget last-minute purchases
Plan for more supplies than you “think” you may need
Inspect / renew your supplies each spring and fall
Provide entertainment for young children.
SIX STEPS TO PROBLEM SOLVING
Size Up Your Situation
Determine Objectives (stay or evacuate?)
Identify Resources (either stored supplies or salvaged materials from your surroundings)
Evaluate Options (use the safest way)
Plan (use your head)
Act…Improvise and overcome
FIRST AID AND SANITATION-Example here
Maintain personal and family health
Prompt treatment reduces infection risk
Sanitation reduces risk of disease vectors
Water borne illnesses, diarrhea
Major cause of dehydration
Increases your survivability!
Disaster Injury Risk Factors:
Tool / equipment hazards, risk of hand, eye, head injuries, electric shock, chemical burns
Human factors, stress / fatigue
Trauma risk, falls, building collapse potential
Terrain, loose rock, fallen limbs, wet or insecure footing, risk of falls, puncture wounds and lacerations from debris.
Stagnant surface water
Contaminated flood waters
Sewage treatment system overflow
Petroleum, industrial, agricultural chemical contamination
Airborne contaminant plumes
Smoke, dust, toxic gases
or radioactive fallout.
Protection from the elements
Wind and rain resistant
Insulation from cold
The “Stay or Evacuate” Decision
If evacuation is not mandatory, the same safety rules
for entering a structure apply to using your home as shelter
DO NOT OCCUPY IF:
There is structural damage
(6 sides of the “box” are not plumb)
Utilities cannot be controlled
Structure was damaged in a fire
DO NOT occupy a floor that has been flooded,
micotoxins from molds are respiratory hazard!
Best to relocate with friends or relatives outside of affected area
Don’t rely on government-run shelters
They are an “option of last resort” for those unable to evacuate
Evacuation route selection is important
Make sure your vehicle can carry essentials
A huge “bug-out” vehicle is a handicap on crowded roads
It uses more fuel, which may be expensive / scarce in an emergency.
Don’t plan on fuel being available en route
In normal times always keep your gas tank at least half full
Upon warning an event is imminent, conserve fuel, keep tank ¾ full
Carry extra fuel containers outside the vehicle
EVACUATE OR STAY?
Conclusion from FEMA Urban-Rural Evacuation State Planners Workshop Sept. 2006
● Population of the DC Metro area
● Propensity to self-evacuate, overwhelmingly by automobile
● Wide distribution of evacuation destinations,
● Perceived vulnerability to terror attack, and anticipation of multiple attacks
● A large-scale, chaotic mass self-evacuation should be anticipated.
Nuclear Detonation – 10-Kiloton Improvised Nuclear Device
Contamination from a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD)
would cover up to a few hundred acres with low-level radioactive material;
A nuclear detonation would affect large areas (10-100 sq. miles)
damaged by direct effects and 100s to 1,000s of sq. miles with radioactive fallout.
Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) – a terrorist attack would most likely be a small device <10 kilotons yield, EMP effect of a ground burst would be mostly within the Moderate Damage Radius, but also propagated by conductors such as power and telephone lines, railroad tracks, pipelines, etc. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_pulse
Feasible only if all personnel can evacuate before fallout contamination arrives and;
Essential functions for Continuity of Operations are transferred to an alternate facility
Affected area would have to be small and warning time adequate to execute the evacuation
Detonation effects (blast/thermal/EMP) will likely impede evacuation
Evacuees may be exposed and/or contaminated.
SHELTER IN PLACE
Critical facilities that cannot evacuate (hospitals, EOCs) must continue to operate
Necessary if fallout/contamination would arrive before evacuation can be completed
Fallout Shelters will be needed to protect against high level radiation/detonation
Shelter-in-place (not necessarily Fallout Shelter) near RDD/very low level
Shelter stay may range from a few days to 2 weeks.
Authorities outside affected area can organize rescue/evacuation effort
Shelter occupants may be exposed and/or contaminated.
SHELTER IN PLACE – Continued
Necessary if operations can not be transferred or if staff, patients or clients cannot evacuate
Necessary if needed to support operations of other response agencies
Must have Radiological Monitoring & Exposure Control capabilities
Critical Facilities may be used to shelter families of the staff
Critical Facilities will not be used to shelter the general public.
DECONTAMINATION after a flood or attack
start immediately, even if you don’t know what the agent is.
Edit by Michael- Buy this HERE
Sandia decontamination foam (US Patent 6,566,574 B1) sold
as Scott’s Liquid Gold Mold Control 500 in hardware stores.
Is effective against most chemical and
biological agents, including nerve, blister,
anthrax, SARS, Norwalk, avian and common flu.
Widely used for hospital /hotel sanitization
mold remediation in commercial buildings,
cleaning / neutralizing agricultural sprayers.
Moderate cost, about $30 at Home Depot.
EXPEDIENT FIELD DECONTAMINATION
If you are contaminated:
Remove everything, including jewelry
Cut off clothing normally removed over the head
Place contaminated clothing in plastic bag, tie closed
Wash your hands before using them to shower
DECONTAMINATION – Continued
Flush entire body with cool water
Blot dry with absorbent cloth
Put on clean clothes
Avoid use of affected areas, to prevent re-exposure
If professional help arrives, report to responders
for thorough decontamination and medical assessment.
NUCLEAR ATTACK ISSUES:
Structural damage to shelter from nearby detonation
Fire in the shelter
Dangerously high radiation levels
Severely high temperatures and humidity
Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide imbalance in the shelter
Depletion of essential supplies
Disease and injury
Unrest, anxiety, crime or defiance of order or authority
Time – Fallout radiation intensity decays rapidly;
90% in just the first 7 hours. The less time you
spend in a radiation field, the less dose received.
Distance – The farther you are from a source,
the less dose you receive.
Shielding – Denser (heavier, massive) materials
absorb more radiation. Greater thickness of any
given material absorbs more radiation.
Protection Factors & Mass of Materials
*PF = “Protection Factor” refers to the ratio between the radiation dose rate of the OUTSIDE to that INSIDE the shelter, for instance a PF = 10 means that the inside dose rate is 1/10th the outside rate.
How Much Protection?
PF* Lead Steel Concrete Earth Water Wood
2 .3″” .7″ 2.0″ 3.3″ 5″ 9″
4 .5″ 1.5″ 5.0″ 7.0″ 10″ 15″
8 1.0″ 2.0″ 6.5″ 10.0″ 15″ 27″
16 1.2″ 3.0″ 9.0″ 14.0″ 20″ 3 ft
32 1.5″ 4.0″ 12.0″ 15.0″ 2 ft 4 ft
64 2.0″ 4.2″ 13.2″ 19.8″ 2.5ft 4.5 ft
128 2.1″ 5.0″ 15.0″ 2 ft 3 ft 5 ft
1000 3.0″ 7.0″ 22.0″ 33.0″ 4 ft –
2000 3.3″ 7.7″ 2 ft 3 ft 4.5 ft –
Outside radiation, divided by the Protection Factor, is reduced in proportion. For example, if the outside radiation rate is 1,000 R/hr, a person shielded by 3 ft. of earth would receive a dose rate of .5 R/hr. but a person shielded by 1 ft of earth would receive about 10 R/hr.
Sheltering at Home During an Emergency
For using a building without working utilities as shelter
Exhaust – candles, camp stoves, lanterns, generators,
heaters, charcoal grills, all generate carbon monoxide
and must not be used indoors!
Open flame – above ignition sources
must never be left unattended!
Fuel – most of the above require flammable fuels
to operate, which must be stored outdoors.
Use Fire Marshal approved fuel containers
Improvised Emergency Shelters
As in all real estate, most important is location:
Avoid low spots with poor drainage
Seek a gently sloped area so that surface water drains away
Sheltered from prevailing winds
Away from bodies of water (attracts insects and animals)
Insulated from direct contact with ground, rock,
or concrete, which conducts away body heat.
Avoid as shelter:
Areas around downed utility lines
In or near culverts
Within the “collapse zone” of a damaged building
(maintain 2:1 ratio of distance away to building height)
Don’t disable a good car!
Remove car batteries to power communications and
shelter lighting only from cars that do not start
If a car starts reserve it for emergency evacuation, or
Use it as a “battery charger”
Salvage lighting, remove dome lights, tail lights,
trunk lights, etc. & with at least 36” of wires.
Position batteries in shelter; attach wires & lights
As batteries discharge, replace with new batteries
or recharge batteries.
Emergency Shelter Materials:
Salvage building materials from debris or
from damaged structures only when it can be done safely
TYVEK building wrap
Roofing paper and shingles
Chain link fence
Wire, rope, and fasteners
Build Your Shelter In Layers
Structural framing: lumber, plywood, fencing, metal
Fasteners: reinforce structural connections with nails, wire or rope ties, wooden spikes
Water and wind proofing: TYVEK, plastic sheeting, tarp, shingles, roofing paper
Insulation: drywall, leaves, tree branches, carpeting, (may also be used as ballast to hold water/wind proofing layer in place)
Day: Mirror flashes – best daylight signal device
Brightly colored cloth flag / panel (VS-17)
ICAO surface-to-air signals
V Require assistance
X Need medical assistance
Y Yes – affirmative
N No – negative
→ I am proceeding in this direction
Night: Flashing strobe light
Sound, i.e. whistle, siren, vehicle horn
Maintains body temperature
Great morale booster
Deters wild animals and insects
Used as day (smoke)
or night (light) signal
FIRE MAKING METHODS
Matches or lighter
Flint and steel (Doan Machinery Corp. Fire Starter)
Use cotton ball and petroleum jelly as tinder
Battery and steel wool
Minimum for drinking
1 gallon per person, per day
More water is needed for
Cooking and food preparation
Personal hygiene, sanitation and decontamination
Store a two week supply as minimum
Food grade containers with screw caps
Away from direct sunlight
EMERGENCY WATER SOURCES
Captive water in household hot water tank and interior plumbing is OK
Filter cloudy water to remove particulates, using an EPA-rated filter
with a pore size ≤ 1 micron, then:
Disinfect with Clorox (6% sodium hypochlorite) add 8 drops of Chlorox
bleach per gallon if clear, 16 drops if cloudy, let water stand 15 minutes before use
Or boil vigorously for 15 minutes
Store potable water in clean containers.
All natural sources (from springs, ponds, rivers or streams)
must be boiled or chemically disinfected.
Chemical disinfection or boiling – Kills bacteria and viruses
Doesn’t remove particulates or chemical pollutants
Filtration – Coffee filters, etc. remove gross particulates only
EPA-rated filters (pore size smaller than 1 micron) are needed
to remove bacteria, viruses and Giardia cysts, but don’t remove chemical pollutants.
Distillation is the most effective method.
Lowest of the seven survival priorities
Need is mostly mental, because we are used to eating regularly
Healthy people will do OK without food for a week or more, if they are well hydrated
Balanced nutrition is a important health factor for elderly and infants.
SHELF LIFE OF FOOD STORED IN THE HOME
Food in a refrigerator is safe for a day after the power goes off,
either use it in 24 hours or throw it away
Frozen food is safe if there are still ice crystals,
once thawed, cook and consume it within 24 hours
Next use non-perishables and dry staples
Canned foods are best for long term storage
(up to 4 years) but are heavy to transport and bulky to store
Dry packaged foods are easiest to transport
Choose foods requiring minimal preparation
Eat at least one balanced meal daily
Include nutritional supplements in supplies
Drink enough water.
EMERGENCY FOOD SUPPLIES
MREs, or Heater Meals®
Prepared survival rations
Primitive survival methods:
TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
Folding utility knife or multi-tool
Scout type, Leatherman®, Swiss Army or Mil-K-818
Manual can opener, if not on utility knife
Sturdy fixed blade, such as 5″ Mil. Aircrew Survival Knife
For chopping, digging, or as pry bar
Shovel, Gerber field spade or similar
Hand saw, #7947 Fiskars Woodzig Pruning Saw, folding 10″
Each person should have their own backpack of personal essentials
First Aid Kit, (containing a first aid manual)
Personal medications and sanitation supplies
Cooking and eating utensils
Wool blanket or sleeping bag for each person
Sturdy shoes and extra socks
Change of warm clothing and underwear
Items for special needs, care of infants
DISASTER FINANCIAL PLANNING
Electronic transactions, account verifications may be impossible
Evacuate with enough cash for at least two weeks of essentials
Carry account numbers, contact addresses and telephone numbers for all important persons and institutions
Helping one’s unprepared friends and neighbors may prove expensive!
SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF DISASTERS
Cumulative psychological effects upon survivors
Evacuate or Stay? – Do you have a plan?
Where will you go? Is it safe to travel?
Can you REALLY get there? Do you have enough resources to make it work?
Warn friends not to invite others to come and evacuate with them
They’ll overwhelm your limited resources!
Never allow family members to be separated
Even if it means waiting for later rescue and/or evacuation
The well prepared may be threatened by those who weren’t – get to know your neighbors NOW for a safer community later in case of a disaster
Make plans to ensure neighborhood security/family protection
Post a guard in rotating shifts, to deter roving criminals or looters
Keep firearms and ammunition safely secured
Take a home firearms safety-protection course
Lessons from Hurricane Katrina
When help arrives, you may get it
“…….whether you want it or not.”
Don’t believe that all rescuers will respect your property
Relief workers from other States often don’t know local laws
Relief organizations have their own bureaucratic requirements that may conflict with your needs
Expect frustration over lack of communication and empathy by rescuers and local/State government.
Positive attitude – Stop Think Observe Plan
First Aid / Sanitation – Maintain proper hygiene, preserve family health, prevent illness or injury
Shelter – Protection from environmental hazards – use Time, Distance, Shielding
Signaling / Communication- be heard / seen
Fire – Warmth, light, food prep, water sterilization
Water – Prevent water-borne illnesses through filtration, chemical sterilization, boiling or distillation
Food – Eat at least one balanced meal daily, drink enough water, include nutritional supplements
Equipment- Flashlight, knife, saw, axe, shovel
Planning – Prepare a Kit, Make A Plan!
For further information:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Fairfax County Fire & Rescue Department
Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene
Huntsville-Madison County, Alabama, EMA
University of Florida IFAS Extension
Virginia Cooperative Extension Service
Virginia Department of Emergency Management
Virginia Department of Health
Virginia RACES, Incorporated
Discuss and debate, please …. I read it once and noticed holes in it…